We study the non-relativistic limit of quantum fields for an inertial and a non-inertial observer. We show that non-relativistic particle states appear as a superposition of relativistic and non-relativistic particles in different frames. Hence, the non-relativistic limit is frame-dependent. We detail this result when the non-inertial observer has uniform constant acceleration. Only for low accelerations, the accelerated observer agrees with the inertial frame about the non-relativistic nature of particles locally. In such a quasi-inertial regime, both observers agree about the number of particles describing quantum field states. The same does not occur when the acceleration is arbitrarily large (e.g., the Unruh effect). We furthermore prove that wave functions of particles in the inertial and the quasi-inertial frame are identical up to the coordinate transformation relating the two frames.
My online lecture at the Department of Nonlinear Dynamics – Bharathidasan University
From condensed matter to quantum chromodynamics, multidimensional spins are a fundamental paradigm, with a pivotal role in combinatorial optimization and machine learning. Machines formed by coupled parametric oscillators can simulate spin models, but only for Ising or low-dimensional spins. Currently, machines implementing arbitrary dimensions remain a challenge. Here, we introduce and validate a hyperspin machine to simulate multidimensional continuous spin models. We realize high-dimensional spins by pumping groups of parametric oscillators, and show that the hyperspin machine finds to a very good approximation the ground state of complex graphs. The hyperspin machine can interpolate between different dimensions by tuning the coupling topology, a strategy that we call “dimensional annealing”. When interpolating between the XY and the Ising model, the dimensional annealing substantially increases the success probability compared to conventional Ising simulators. Hyperspin machines are a new computational model for combinatorial optimization. They can be realized by off-the-shelf hardware for ultrafast, large-scale applications in classical and quantum computing, condensed-matter physics, and fundamental studies.
In search of the measurable effects of gravity on elementary particles
We give from first principles the non-relativistic limit of scalar and Dirac fields in curved spacetime. We aim to find general relativistic corrections to the quantum theory of particles affected by Newtonian gravity, a regime nowadays experimentally accessible. We believe that the ever-improving measurement accuracy and the theoretical interest in finding general relativistic effects in quantum systems require the introduction of corrections to the Schrödinger-Newtonian theory. We rigorously determine these corrections by the non-relativistic limit of fully relativistic quantum theories in curved spacetime. For curved static spacetimes, we show how a non-inertial observer (equivalently, an observer in the presence of a gravitational field) can distinguish a scalar field from a Dirac field by particle-gravity interaction. We study the Rindler spacetime and discuss the difference between the resulting non-relativistic Hamiltonians. We find that for sufficiently large acceleration, the gravity-spin coupling dominates over the corrections for scalar fields, promoting Dirac particles as the best candidates for observing non-Newtonian gravity in quantum particle phenomenology.