Localization in Quantum Field Theory for Inertial and Accelerated Observers

We study the problem of localization in Quantum Field Theory (QFT) from the point of view of inertial and accelerated experimenters. We consider the Newton-Wigner, the Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT), and the modal localization schemes, which are, respectively, based on the orthogonality condition for states localized in disjoint regions of space, on the algebraic approach to QFT and on the representation of single particles as positive frequency solution of the field equation. We show that only the AQFT scheme obeys causality and physical invariance under differentomorphisms. Then, we consider the nonrelativistic limit of quantum fields in the Rindler frame. We demonstrate the convergence between the AQFT and the modal scheme, and we show the emergence of the Born notion of localization of states and observables. Also, we study the scenario in which an experimenter prepares states over a background vacuum by means of nonrelativistic local operators, and another experimenter carries out nonrelativistic local measurements in a different region. We find that the independence between preparation of states and measurements is not guaranteed when both experimenters are accelerated and the background state is different from Rindler vacuum, or when one of the two experimenters is inertial.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2401.03975

Localization in Quantum Field Theory

We review the issue of localization in quantum field theory and detail the nonrelativistic limit. Three distinct localization schemes are examined: the Newton-Wigner, the algebraic quantum field theory, and the modal scheme. Among these, the algebraic quantum field theory provides a fundamental concept of localization, rooted in its axiomatic formulation. In contrast, the Newton-Wigner scheme draws inspiration from the Born interpretation, applying mainly to the nonrelativistic regime. The modal scheme, relying on the representation of single particles as positive frequency modes of the Klein-Gordon equation, is found to be incompatible with the algebraic quantum field theory localization.
This review delves into the distinctive features of each scheme, offering a comparative analysis. A specific focus is placed on the property of independence between state preparations and observable measurements in spacelike separated regions. Notably, the notion of localization in algebraic quantum field theory violates this independence due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem. Drawing parallels with the quantum teleportation protocol, it is argued that causality remains unviolated. Additionally, we consider the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, revealing the emergence of the Born scheme as the fundamental concept of localization. Consequently, the nonlocality associated with the Reeh-Schlieder theorem is shown to be suppressed under nonrelativistic conditions.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2312.15348

Optimal quantum communication networks: capacitance versus security

https://arxiv.org/abs/2312.04221

The rate and security of quantum communications between users placed at arbitrary points of a quantum communication network depend on the structure of the network, on its extension and on the nature of the communication channels. In this work we propose a strategy of network optimization that intertwines classical network approaches and quantum information theory. Specifically, by suitably defining a quantum efficiency functional, we identify the optimal quantum communication connections through the network by balancing security and the quantum communication rate. The optimized network is then constructed as the network of the maximal quantum efficiency connections and its performance is evaluated by studying the scaling of average properties as functions of the number of nodes and of the network spatial extension.

QFT in curved spacetime permits quantitative predictions for the Unruh effect with hydrogenlike atoms

https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.108.022807

We consider ionized hydrogenlike atoms accelerated by an external electric field to detect Unruh radiation. By applying quantum field theory in the Rindler space-time, we show that the first-quantized description for hydrogenlike atoms cannot always be adopted. This is due to the frame-dependent definition of particles as positive and negative frequency field modes. We show how to suppress such a frame-dependent effect by constraining the atomic ionization and the electric field. We identify the physical regimes with nonvanishing atomic excitation probability due to the Unruh electromagnetic background. We recognize the observational limits for the Unruh effect via first-quantized atomic detectors, which appear to be compatible with current technology. Notably, the nonrelativistic energy spectrum of the atom cannot induce coupling with the thermal radiation, even when special relativistic and general relativistic corrections are considered. On the contrary, the coupling with the Unruh radiation arises because of relativistic hyperfine splitting and the Zeeman effect.

Dark matter condensates as highly nonlocal solitons: instability in the Schwarzschild metric and laboratory analog

Theories on the bosonic nature of dark matter are a promising alternative to the cold dark matter model. Here we consider a dark matter halo in the state of a Bose-Einstein condensate, subject to the gravitation of a black hole. In the low energy limit, we bring together the general relativity in the Schwarzschild metric and the quantum description of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The model is solvable in the Fermi normal coordinates with the so called highly nonlocal approximation and describes tidal deformations in the condensate wave function. The black hole deforms the localized condensate until the attraction of the compact object overcomes the self-gravitation and destabilizes the solitonic dark matter. Moreover, the model can be implemented as a gravitational analog in the laboratory; the time-dependent potential generated by the galactic black hole can be mimicked by an optical trap acting on a conventional condensate. The results open the way to new laboratory simulators for quantum gravitational effects.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2305.10780