Dark matter condensates as highly nonlocal solitons: instability in the Schwarzschild metric and laboratory analog

Theories on the bosonic nature of dark matter are a promising alternative to the cold dark matter model. Here we consider a dark matter halo in the state of a Bose-Einstein condensate, subject to the gravitation of a black hole. In the low energy limit, we bring together the general relativity in the Schwarzschild metric and the quantum description of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The model is solvable in the Fermi normal coordinates with the so called highly nonlocal approximation and describes tidal deformations in the condensate wave function. The black hole deforms the localized condensate until the attraction of the compact object overcomes the self-gravitation and destabilizes the solitonic dark matter. Moreover, the model can be implemented as a gravitational analog in the laboratory; the time-dependent potential generated by the galactic black hole can be mimicked by an optical trap acting on a conventional condensate. The results open the way to new laboratory simulators for quantum gravitational effects.


Parisi Nobel lecture mentioning our experiments

This is the extended version of the Giorgio Parisi Nobel lecture mentioning our experiments in nonlinear optics and random laser with the first observation of Replica Symmetry Breaking


See also Coloquio at the University of Pernambuco on youtube

See also Observation of replica symmetry breaking in disordered nonlinear wave propagation

See also The Experimental Observation of Replica Symmetry Breaking in Random Lasers

Launching optical tsunamis against tumor cells

We demonstrate the excitation of giant rogue waves of light inside human pancreatic tumor cells; they can be used for deep light transport and local heating for cancer treatment.

Rogue waves are intense and unexpected wavepackets ubiquitous in complex systems. In optics, they are promising as robust and noise-resistant beams for probing and manipulating the underlying material. Localizing large optical power is crucial, especially in biomedical systems, where extremely intense beams have not yet been observed. We here discover that tumor-cell spheroids manifest optical rogue waves when illuminated by randomly modulated laser beams. The intensity of light transmitted through bio-printed three-dimensional tumor models follows a signature Weibull statistical distribution, where extreme events correspond to spatially-localized optical modes propagating within the cell network. Experiments varying the input beam power and size indicate that rogue waves have a nonlinear origin. We show these optical filaments form high-transmission channels with enhanced transmission. They deliver large optical power through the tumor spheroid, which can be exploited to achieve a local temperature increase controlled by the input wave shape. Our findings shed new light on optical propagation in biological aggregates and demonstrate how extreme event formation allows light concentration in deep tissues, paving the way to using rogue waves in biomedical applications such as light-activated therapies


The Hyperspin Machine in Nature Communications !


From condensed matter to quantum chromodynamics, multidimensional spins are a fundamental paradigm, with a pivotal role in combinatorial optimization and machine learning. Machines formed by coupled parametric oscillators can simulate spin models, but only for Ising or low-dimensional spins. Currently, machines implementing arbitrary dimensions remain a challenge. Here, we introduce and validate a hyperspin machine to simulate multidimensional continuous spin models. We realize high-dimensional spins by pumping groups of parametric oscillators, and show that the hyperspin machine finds to a very good approximation the ground state of complex graphs. The hyperspin machine can interpolate between different dimensions by tuning the coupling topology, a strategy that we call “dimensional annealing”. When interpolating between the XY and the Ising model, the dimensional annealing substantially increases the success probability compared to conventional Ising simulators. Hyperspin machines are a new computational model for combinatorial optimization. They can be realized by off-the-shelf hardware for ultrafast, large-scale applications in classical and quantum computing, condensed-matter physics, and fundamental studies.

See also The hyperspin machine: simulating QCD models and dimensional annealing

Nonlocality-induced surface localization in Bose-Einstein condensates of light

The ability to create and manipulate strongly correlated quantum many-body states is of central importance to the study of collective phenomena in several condensed-matter systems. In the last decades, a great amount of work has been focused on ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which provide a flexible platform to simulate peculiar phases of matter both for fermionic and bosonic particles. The recent experimental demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of light in dye-filled microcavities has opened the intriguing possibility to build photonic simulators of solid-state systems, with potential advantages over their atomic counterpart. A distinctive feature of photon BEC is the thermo-optical nature of the effective photon-photon interaction, which is intrinsically nonlocal and can thus induce interactions of arbitrary range. This offers the opportunity to systematically study the collective behavior of many-body systems with tunable interaction range. In this paper, we theoretically study the effect of nonlocal interactions in photon BEC. We first present numerical results of BEC in a double-well potential, and then extend our analysis to a short one-dimensional lattice with open boundaries. By resorting to a numerical procedure inspired by the Newton-Raphson method, we simulate the time-independent Gross-Pitaevskii equation and provide evidence of surface localization induced by nonlocality, where the condensate density is localized at the boundaries of the potential. Our work paves the way toward the realization of synthetic matter with photons, where the interplay between long-range interactions and low dimensionality can lead to the emergence of unexplored nontrivial collective phenomena.