All-Optical Scalable Spatial Coherent Ising Machine

Networks of optical oscillators simulating coupled Ising spins have been recently proposed as a heuristic platform to solve hard optimization problems. These networks, called coherent Ising machines (CIMs), exploit the fact that the collective nonlinear dynamics of coupled oscillators can drive the system close to the global minimum of the classical Ising Hamiltonian, encoded in the coupling matrix of the network. To date, realizations of large-scale CIMs have been demonstrated using hybrid optical-electronic setups, where optical oscillators simulating different spins are subject to electronic feedback mechanisms emulating their mutual interaction. While the optical evolution ensures an ultrafast computation, the electronic coupling represents a bottleneck that causes the computational time to severely depend on the system size. Here, we propose an all-optical scalable CIM with fully programmable coupling. Our setup consists of an optical parametric amplifier with a spatial light modulator (SLM) within the parametric cavity. The spin variables are encoded in the binary phases of the optical wave front of the signal beam at different spatial points, defined by the pixels of the SLM. We first discuss how different coupling topologies can be achieved by different configurations of the SLM, and then benchmark our setup with a numerical simulation that mimics the dynamics of the proposed machine. In our proposal, both the spin dynamics and the coupling are fully performed in parallel, paving the way towards the realization of size-independent ultrafast optical hardware for large-scale computation purposes.

Boson sampling solitons by quantum machine learning

We use a neural network variational ansatz to compute Gaussian quantum discrete solitons in an array of waveguides described by the quantum discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. By training the quantum machine learning model in the phase space, we find different quantum soliton solutions varying the number of particles and interaction strength. The use of Gaussian states enables measuring the degree of entanglement and the boson sampling patterns. We compute the probability of generating different particle pairs when varying the soliton features and unveil that bound states of discrete solitons emit correlated pairs of photons. These results may have a role in boson sampling experiments with nonlinear systems and in developing quantum processors to generate entangled many-photon nonlinear states.

Quantum machine learning and boson sampling

Training Gaussian boson sampling by quantum machine learning

published in Quantum Machine Intelligence 3, 26 (2021)


We use neural networks to represent the characteristic function of many-body Gaussian states in the quantum phase space. By a pullback mechanism, we model transformations due to unitary operators as linear layers that can be cascaded to simulate complex multi-particle processes. We use the layered neural networks for non-classical light propagation in random interferometers, and compute boson pattern probabilities by automatic differentiation. This is a viable strategy for training Gaussian boson sampling. We demonstrate that multi-particle events in Gaussian boson sampling can be optimized by a proper design and training of the neural network weights. The results are potentially useful to the creation of new sources and complex circuits for quantum technologies.

Photonic extreme learning machine by free-space optical propagation

Photonic brain-inspired platforms are emerging as novel analog computing devices, enabling fast and energy-efficient operations for machine learning. These artificial neural networks generally require tailored optical elements, such as integrated photonic circuits, engineered diffractive layers, nanophotonic materials, or time-delay schemes, which are challenging to train or stabilize. Here we present a neuromorphic photonic scheme – photonic extreme learning machines – that can be implemented simply by using an optical encoder and coherent wave propagation in free space. We realize the concept through spatial light modulation of a laser beam, with the far field that acts as feature mapping space. We experimentally demonstrated learning from data on various classification and regression tasks, achieving accuracies comparable to digital extreme learning machines. Our findings point out an optical machine learning device that is easy-to-train, energetically efficient, scalable and fabrication-constraint free. The scheme can be generalized to a plethora of photonic systems, opening the route to real-time neuromorphic processing of optical data.


Photonics Research 9, 1446 (2021)