Multipolar terahertz spectroscopy by graphene plasmons

Terahertz absorption spectroscopy plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems as a powerful tool to identify molecular species through their rotational spectrum fingerprint. Owing to the sub-nanometer scale of molecules, radiation-matter coupling is typically dominated by dipolar interaction. Here we show that multipolar rotational spectroscopy of molecules in proximity of localized graphene structures can be accessed through the extraordinary enhancement of their multipolar transitions provided by terahertz plasmons. In particular, specializing our calculations to homonuclear diatomic molecules, we demonstrate that a micron-sized graphene ring with a nano-hole at the core combines a strong near-field enhancement and an inherently pronounced field localization enabling the enhancement of the dipole-forbidden terahertz absorption cross-section of H+2H2+ by 8 orders of magnitude. Our results shed light on the strong potential offered by nano-structured graphene as a robust and electrically tunable platform for multipolar terahertz absorption spectroscopy at the nanoscale.

A. Ciattoni, C. Conti, and A. Marini in Communication Physics

Topology into the Ring: new fibers and resonators

Topological photonic crystal fibers and ring resonators

We study photonic crystal fibers and ring resonators with topological features induced by Aubry- Andre-Harper modulations of the cladding. We find non-trivial gaps and edge states at the interface between regions with different Chern numbers. We calculate the field profile and eigenvalue dispersion by an exact recursive approach. Compared with conventional circular resonators and fibers, the proposed structure features topological protection and hence robustness against symmetry-preserving local perturbations that do not close the gap. These topological photonic crystal fibers sustain strong field localization and energy concentration at a given radial distance. As topological light guiding and trapping devices, they may bring about many opportunities for both fundamentals and applications unachievable with conventional optical devices.

Laura Pilozzi, Daniel Leykam, Zhigang Chen, Claudio Conti in ArXiv:1909.02081

See also

Topological inverse problem by machine learning

Topological cascade laser

Topological Control of Extreme Waves

From optics to hydrodynamics, shock and rogue waves are widespread. Although they appear as distinct phenomena, new theories state that transitions between extreme waves are allowed. However, these have never been experimentally observed because of the lack of control strategies. We introduce a new concept of nonlinear wave topological control, based on the one-to-one correspondence between the number of wave packet oscillating phases and the genus of toroidal surfaces associated with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation solutions by the Riemann theta function. We prove it experimentally by reporting the first observation of supervised transitions between extreme waves with different genera, like the continuous transition from dispersive shock to rogue waves. Specifically, we use a parametric time-dependent nonlinearity to shape the asymptotic wave genus. We consider the box problem in a focusing Kerr-like photorefractive medium and tailor time-dependent propagation coefficients, as nonlinearity and dispersion, to explore each region in the state-diagram and include all the dynamic phases in the nonlinear wave propagation. Our result is the first example of the topological control of integrable nonlinear waves. This new technique casts light on dispersive shock waves and rogue wave generation and can be extended to other nonlinear phenomena, from classical to quantum ones. The outcome is not only important for fundamental studies and control of extreme nonlinear waves, but can be also applied to spatial beam shaping for microscopy, medicine, and spectroscopy, and to the broadband coherent light generation.

Marcucci et al. in ArXiv:1908.05212

Our Ising machine in Laser Focus World

August 2019 issue of Laser Focus World reports on our Ising machine in a featured article

Researchers have built the largest photonic Ising machine to date – an optical processor for solving difficult optimization problems by modelin interacting spins via a spatially varying light field

Other web and press release on our Ising machine

Le Scienze : la piu’ grande macchina di calcolo con la luce

Repubblica : la macchina che risolve i problemi alla velocita’ della luce

See also

Super-Duper Ising machine