Dark matter condensates as highly nonlocal solitons: instability in the Schwarzschild metric and laboratory analog

Theories on the bosonic nature of dark matter are a promising alternative to the cold dark matter model. Here we consider a dark matter halo in the state of a Bose-Einstein condensate, subject to the gravitation of a black hole. In the low energy limit, we bring together the general relativity in the Schwarzschild metric and the quantum description of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The model is solvable in the Fermi normal coordinates with the so called highly nonlocal approximation and describes tidal deformations in the condensate wave function. The black hole deforms the localized condensate until the attraction of the compact object overcomes the self-gravitation and destabilizes the solitonic dark matter. Moreover, the model can be implemented as a gravitational analog in the laboratory; the time-dependent potential generated by the galactic black hole can be mimicked by an optical trap acting on a conventional condensate. The results open the way to new laboratory simulators for quantum gravitational effects.


Tunneling the horizon in quantum field theory in curved spacetime


Observing single particles beyond the Rindler horizon

We show that Minkowski single-particle states localized beyond the horizon modify the Unruh thermal distribution in an accelerated frame. This means that, contrary to classical predictions, accelerated observers can reveal particles emitted beyond the horizon. The method we adopt is based on deriving the explicit Wigner characteristic function for the complete description of the quantum field in the noninertial frame and can be generalized to general states.


Minkowski vacuum in Rindler spacetime and Unruh thermal state for Dirac fields

We consider a free Dirac field in flat spacetime and we derive the representation of the Minkowski vacuum as an element of the Rindler-Fock space. We also compute the statistical operator obtained by tracing away the left wedge. We detail the resulting thermal state for fermionic particles.


Frame-dependence of the non-relativistic limit of quantum fields

We study the non-relativistic limit of quantum fields for an inertial and a non-inertial observer. We show that non-relativistic particle states appear as a superposition of relativistic and non-relativistic particles in different frames. Hence, the non-relativistic limit is frame-dependent. We detail this result when the non-inertial observer has uniform constant acceleration. Only for low accelerations, the accelerated observer agrees with the inertial frame about the non-relativistic nature of particles locally. In such a quasi-inertial regime, both observers agree about the number of particles describing quantum field states. The same does not occur when the acceleration is arbitrarily large (e.g., the Unruh effect). We furthermore prove that wave functions of particles in the inertial and the quasi-inertial frame are identical up to the coordinate transformation relating the two frames.


Spin-gravity coupling for Dirac particles

In search of the measurable effects of gravity on elementary particles


Non-relativistic limit of scalar and Dirac fields in curved spacetime

We give from first principles the non-relativistic limit of scalar and Dirac fields in curved spacetime. We aim to find general relativistic corrections to the quantum theory of particles affected by Newtonian gravity, a regime nowadays experimentally accessible. We believe that the ever-improving measurement accuracy and the theoretical interest in finding general relativistic effects in quantum systems require the introduction of corrections to the Schrödinger-Newtonian theory. We rigorously determine these corrections by the non-relativistic limit of fully relativistic quantum theories in curved spacetime. For curved static spacetimes, we show how a non-inertial observer (equivalently, an observer in the presence of a gravitational field) can distinguish a scalar field from a Dirac field by particle-gravity interaction. We study the Rindler spacetime and discuss the difference between the resulting non-relativistic Hamiltonians. We find that for sufficiently large acceleration, the gravity-spin coupling dominates over the corrections for scalar fields, promoting Dirac particles as the best candidates for observing non-Newtonian gravity in quantum particle phenomenology.