Terahertz imaging super-resolution for documental heritage diagnostics


Terahertz imaging provides valuable insights into the composition and structure of objects or materials, with applications spanning security screening, medical imaging, materials science, and cultural heritage preservation. Despite its widespread utility, traditional terahertz imaging is limited in spatial resolution to approximately 1 mm according to Abbe’s formula. In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution method for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy systems. Our approach involves spatial filtering through scattering in the far-field of high spatial frequency components of the imaged sample. This method leverages evanescent wave filtering using a knife edge, akin to a standard structured illumination scheme. We demonstrate improved spatial resolution in slit diffraction, edge imaging, and reflection imaging of structures fabricated on a paper substrate using commonly encountered materials in works of art and documents. Furthermore, we present super-resolved images of an ancient document on parchment, showcasing the effectiveness of our proposed method.