Supervised single-shot polarimetry in Nature Communications

DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-37474-0

States of light encoding multiple polarizations – vector beams – offer unique capabilities in metrology and communication. However, their practical application is limited by the lack of methods for measuring many polarizations in a scalable and compact way. Here we demonstrate polarimetry of vector beams in a single shot without any polarization optics. We map the beam polarization content into a spatial intensity distribution through light scattering and exploit supervised learning for single-shot measurements of multiple polarizations. We characterize structured light encoding up to nine polarizations with accuracy beyond 95% on each Stokes parameter. The method also allows us to classify beams with an unknown number of polarization modes, a functionality missing in conventional techniques. Our findings enable a fast and compact polarimeter for polarization-structured light, a general tool that may radically impact optical devices for sensing, imaging, and computing.